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Manual Transmission Fundamentals

    A manual transmission must be shifted by hand to change the amount of torque goingto various parts of the drive train. It is normally bolted to the clutch housing at the rear tothe engine. With a manual transmission, a foot-operated friction clutch is used to engageand disengage the engine.

    A manual transmission is designed to change the vehicles' drive wheel speed andtorque in relation to engine speed and torque. Without a transmission, the engine wouldnot develop enough power to accelerate the vehicle from a standstill. The engine wouldstall as soon as the clutch is engaged.

    With a transmission in first gear, the engine crankshaft must turn several times tomake the drive shaft and wheels turn once. This increases the torque going to the wheels,but reduces vehicle speed.

    Then, as the transmission is shifted through the gears and into high, the engine anddrive shaft begin to turn at approximately the same speed.  Wheel and vehicle speedincrease,while engine speed drops.

    A manual transmission in proper operating condition should:

    Be able to increase torque going to the drive wheels for quick acceleration

    Supply different gear ratios to match different engine load conditions

    Have a reverse gear for moving backwards

    Provide the driver with an easy means of shifting transmission gears

    Operate quietly, with minimum power loss

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